Non-cooperation movement 1920:

The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant nonviolent resistance campaign led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress (INC) against British colonial rule in India. It was launched in 1920 as a response to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and widespread discontent with British policies in India. The movement had several key features:

1. Background:

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, where British troops fired upon a peaceful gathering of Indians, killing hundreds, had deeply angered Indians and intensified the demand for self-rule.

2. Gandhi’s Leadership:

Mahatma Gandhi, who had emerged as a prominent leader in the Indian independence movement, called for non-cooperation with the British authorities as a means of achieving independence. His principles of nonviolent resistance (Satyagraha) played a central role in this movement.
Background and Gandhi's Leadership - Objectives - Surrender of Titles and Honors in Non-cooperation movement
Non-cooperation movement

3. Objectives:

The primary goal of the Non-Cooperation Movement was to demand full independence from British rule and the end of British exploitation of India’s resources. The movement aimed to create a strong, united Indian front against British rule.

4. Boycott of British Institutions:

As part of the movement, Indians were urged to boycott British-made goods, institutions, schools, and government services. This boycott was aimed at undermining British economic and administrative power in India.

5. Khilafat Movement:

In a significant development, the Non-Cooperation Movement was combined with the Khilafat Movement, a protest against the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Gandhi saw this as an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims in a common struggle against the British.

6. Mass Protests:

The movement witnessed widespread participation in mass protests, demonstrations, and strikes. People from various sections of society, including students, peasants, and urban workers, participated in large numbers.

7. Surrender of Titles and Honors:

Indians were encouraged to surrender titles, honors, and positions offered by the British government as a sign of their non-cooperation.

8. Resignation from Government Posts:

Many Indian officials and public servants resigned from government posts as a symbol of their refusal to cooperate with British rule.

9. Suspension of Civil Disobedience:

The Non-Cooperation Movement was suspended in 1922 after the Chauri Chaura incident, where a mob of protesters set fire to a police station, resulting in the death of several police officers. Gandhi felt that nonviolence was compromised, and he called off the movement.
Although the Non-Cooperation Movement was suspended, it had a significant impact on India’s struggle for independence. It marked a shift in the Indian political landscape and showcased the power of nonviolent resistance as a tool for social and political change. The movement paved the way for future struggles and ultimately contributed to India’s independence in 1947.