Mansabdari System:

The Mansabdari System was a military-administrative system introduced by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in the late 16th century. It was a key feature of the Mughal administration and played a crucial role in maintaining control over the vast Mughal Empire. 
Here are the key aspects of the Mansabdari System:

1. Introduction by Akbar:

The Mansabdari System was formalized and implemented by Akbar the Great during his reign from 1556 to 1605.
Akbar aimed to create a centralized administrative structure that would enable effective control and governance over the diverse regions of the Mughal Empire.
Introduction by Akbar and Mansab - Dual Rank System -  Zat and Sawar - Mansabdars - Key aspects of the Mansabdari System
mansabdari system

2. Mansab:

The term “Mansab” refers to a position or rank in the imperial administrative and military hierarchy.
Each officer in the Mughal administration, both military and civil, was assigned a Mansab.

3. Dual Rank System:

The Mansabdari System was characterized by a dual rank system, which included both military and civil ranks.
A person holding a Mansab had two ranks: a zat (personal rank) and a sawar (horseman or cavalry) rank.

4. Zat and Sawar:

The zat rank indicated the numerical position or status of the nobleman in the administrative hierarchy.
The sawar rank indicated the number of cavalrymen (soldiers) the Mansabdar was required to maintain for imperial service.

5. Mansabdars:

Mansabdars were the nobles or officers who held Mansabs. They were appointed by the emperor and could be Turks, Iranians, Central Asians, or Indians.
The system allowed the emperor to have a diverse and loyal group of officers in his administration.

6. Mansabdar’s Salary:

The salary or income of a Mansabdar was determined by both the zat and sawar ranks.
A higher zat rank and a higher number of sawar meant a higher salary and prestige.

7. Military Service:

Mansabdars were primarily military commanders and were expected to provide military service to the emperor.
The number of soldiers (sawar) a Mansabdar had to maintain determined his military contribution to the imperial army.

8. Non-Hereditary:

The Mansabdari ranks were not hereditary. The emperor had the authority to grant, promote, or demote Mansabdars based on merit and loyalty.

9. Integration of Different Communities:

The system allowed for the integration of people from different regions and backgrounds into the imperial administration, fostering a sense of unity within the diverse empire.

10. Legacy:

 The Mansabdari System continued to be a significant feature of the Mughal administration throughout the empire’s existence.
 It was later modified by subsequent emperors but remained a key element in the Mughal administrative structure.
The Mansabdari System was a crucial component of Akbar’s efforts to create a centralized and efficient administrative system in the Mughal Empire. It contributed to the stability and cohesion of the empire during its heyday.