Indian National Movement:

The Indian National Movement was a collective effort by the people of India to gain independence from British colonial rule. It was a historic struggle that spanned several decades, characterized by non-violent civil disobedience, mass protests, and political activism. The movement ultimately led to India’s independence on August 15, 1947.
Early Nationalism (Late 19th Century) - Gandhian Era (1920s-1940s) - Post-War Period (1945-1947) of Indian National Movements

Key Phases of the Indian National Movement:

1. Early Nationalism (Late 19th Century):

Formation of Indian National Congress (1885): The Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by Allan Octavian Hume and other prominent leaders in 1885. Its early demands were focused on administrative reforms, increased Indian participation in governance, and civil rights.
Partition of Bengal (1905): The partition was seen as a divisive policy by the British, leading to widespread protests and unifying the Indian people against British rule.

2. Moderate Phase (Late 19th to Early 20th Century):

Moderate Leaders: Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee advocated constitutional means to achieve reforms and greater self-governance for India.

3. Extremist Phase (Early 20th Century):

Extremist Leaders: Leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Rai advocated more radical means to achieve self-rule, including mass agitation and civil disobedience.
Partition of Bengal Reversed (1911): Due to extensive protests, the British government annulled the partition of Bengal in 1911.

4. Gandhian Era (1920s-1940s):

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922): Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement, urging Indians to non-violently resist British rule by boycotting British goods and institutions.
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934): The Civil Disobedience Movement aimed at nonviolent non-cooperation with unjust laws, taxes, and policies.
Quit India Movement (1942): A mass protest led by Gandhi, demanding an end to British rule. It was met with harsh repression but marked a significant step toward independence.

5. Post-War Period (1945-1947):

Naval Mutiny (1946): A mutiny by Indian naval ratings in Bombay, followed by communal riots and political unrest, hastened the process of independence.
Independence and Partition (1947): India gained independence on August 15, 1947, and was partitioned into two separate nations: India and Pakistan, marking the end of British colonial rule in the region.

Key Leaders:

Prominent leaders of the Indian National Movement included Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhas Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, and many others, who played vital roles in mobilizing the masses and shaping the movement’s direction.
The Indian National Movement remains a source of inspiration worldwide for its dedication to non-violence, civil rights, and independence, becoming a model for other movements for self-determination and social justice.