Humayun’s early life and ascension:

Humayun was the second Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India, ruling from 1530 to 1540 and then from 1555 to 1556. 
Early Life - Ascension to the Throne - Challenges and Exile - Return to Power - Death of Humayun
Humayun early life
Here is an overview of his early life and ascension to the throne:

Early Life:

Birth: Humayun was born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, in present-day Afghanistan. He was the eldest son of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and his wife Maham Begum.
Education: Humayun received a high-quality education in literature, art, mathematics, and sciences, along with training in military strategies and administration.

Ascension to the Throne:

Babur’s Death: After the death of his father, Babur, in 1530, Humayun ascended to the throne of the Mughal Empire at the age of 22.
Challenges: Humayun faced immediate challenges to his rule. His younger brothers, Kamran, Hindal, and Askari, rebelled against him, leading to internal conflicts for control over the empire.
Reign and Expansion: Despite internal challenges, Humayun managed to expand the Mughal Empire. He successfully conquered Gujarat in 1535 and annexed Bengal in 1538.

Humayun’s Challenges and Exile:

Battle of Chausa and Kannauj: Humayun faced a major setback in 1539 when he lost the Battle of Chausa against Sher Shah Suri. He later lost the Battle of Kannauj in 1540, forcing him into exile.
Exile in Persia: Humayun sought refuge in the Safavid court in Persia. During his exile, he formed alliances with Persian rulers and received military assistance to reclaim his empire.

Return to Power:

Return to India: With the help of Persian forces, Humayun managed to reclaim Delhi in 1555, marking his return to power.

Death of Humayun:

Short Reign: Humayun’s reign after his return to power was short-lived. He died on January 27, 1556, just a year after regaining the throne, due to an accidental fall from the stairs of his library.
Humayun’s reign and his eventual return to power marked a turbulent period in the early history of the Mughal Empire. His struggles and achievements paved the way for his son Akbar, one of the greatest Mughal emperors, to establish a stable and prosperous empire in the years that followed.