What Chinese history philosophy?

Chinese philosophy has a rich and diverse history that spans over two millennia. It has significantly influenced not only Chinese culture and society but also the broader philosophical traditions of East Asia. Several key philosophies and thinkers have shaped Chinese philosophical thought:

 1. Confucianism (儒家思想 – Rújiā Sīxiǎng):

Confucianism, founded by Confucius (551–479 BCE), emphasizes the importance of social harmony, moral integrity, and filial piety. Key concepts include:
– Ren (仁): Benevolence, kindness, and humanity.
– Li (礼): Rituals and etiquette, emphasizing proper conduct and social harmony.
– Xiao (孝): Filial piety, respect for parents and ancestors.
– Junzi (君子): The noble or virtuous person, an ideal human being in Confucianism.
 2. Daoism (道家思想 – Dàojiā Sīxiǎng):
Daoism, based on the teachings of Laozi (6th century BCE) and Zhuangzi (369–286 BCE), focuses on living in harmony with the Dao (the Way). Key concepts include:
– Dao (道): The fundamental principle that is the source of the universe.
– Wu Wei (无为): Non-action or effortless action, going with the flow of the Dao.
– Ziran (自然): Naturalness, simplicity, and spontaneity.
 3. Legalism (法家思想 – Fǎjiā Sīxiǎng):
Legalism, associated with thinkers like Han Feizi (c. 280–233 BCE), emphasizes strict laws, strong central authority, and the use of rewards and punishments to maintain social order and obedience.
 4. Mohism (墨家思想 – Mòjiā Sīxiǎng):
Mohism, founded by Mozi (c. 470–c. 391 BCE), emphasizes universal love, frugality, and the rejection of excessive attachment to material possessions. Mohists advocated for impartial care and concern for all people.
 5. School of Yin-Yang (阴阳家 – Yīn-Yáng Jiā):
The School of Yin-Yang, associated with the concept of Yin and Yang, focuses on the interdependence and balance of opposites in the universe. It influenced various aspects of Chinese thought, including traditional Chinese medicine and cosmology.
 6. Neo-Confucianism (宋明理学 – Sòng-Míng Lǐxué):
Neo-Confucianism emerged during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE) and combined Confucian principles with Daoist and Buddhist ideas. Scholars like Zhu Xi (1130–1200) played a significant role in shaping this philosophical school.
Chinese philosophy continues to evolve and adapt to contemporary contexts, influencing various aspects of Chinese society, politics, ethics, and culture. Its enduring legacy has also made a significant impact on global philosophical discourse.