Biography of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, commonly known as Veer Savarkar, was an Indian independence activist, politician, poet, writer, and the founder of the Hindutva ideology. He played a significant role in the Indian independence movement and later became a prominent political figure. Born on May 28, 1883, in Bhagur, Maharashtra, Savarkar’s life and legacy are complex and evoke varied opinions.
Early Life and Education - Revolutionary Activities - Controversies and Criticisms - Death of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Biography of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Early Life and Education:

1. Family Background: Vinayak Savarkar was born into a Marathi Brahmin family. His father, Damodar Savarkar, was a teacher and a stern nationalist.
2. Education: Savarkar was a meritorious student and pursued his education in India and England. He studied at Fergusson College in Pune and later went to London for further studies.

Savarkar’s Revolutionary Activities:

1. Abhinav Bharat: Savarkar was a key member of the Abhinav Bharat Society, a revolutionary organization that aimed to overthrow British rule in India.
2. The First War of Independence (1857): Savarkar believed in the use of armed resistance against British rule and considered the 1857 uprising as the First War of Independence.
3. Arrest and Incarceration: In 1909, Savarkar was arrested in London and extradited to India for his involvement in revolutionary activities. He was sentenced to two life terms and 50 years of imprisonment, and he spent several years in the Cellular Jail in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Political and Literary Contributions:

1. Hindutva Ideology: Savarkar is credited with coining the term “Hindutva,” which he defined as the essence of being Hindu and the cultural and political identity of Hindus.
2. Literary Works: He was a prolific writer and poet. His notable literary works include “The First War of Indian Independence” (1909) and “Hindutva: Who is a Hindu?” (1923).


1. Role in Post-Partition Period: After India gained independence in 1947, Savarkar continued his political activities. He advocated for the protection of the rights of Hindus, especially in the context of the post-Partition communal tensions.
2. Founder of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS): Savarkar was not the founder of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), but his ideas influenced the formation of the organization. The RSS was founded in 1925 by Keshav Baliram Hedgewar.

Controversies and Criticisms:

1. Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi: Savarkar faced controversy and was accused of being involved in the conspiracy that led to the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi in 1948. However, he was acquitted due to lack of evidence.

Death of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:

Veer Savarkar passed away on February 26, 1966, in Mumbai, Maharashtra.


1. Controversial Figure: Savarkar remains a controversial figure in Indian history. While some view him as a freedom fighter and nationalist, others criticize his views on social and political issues.
2. Hindutva Ideology: The concept of Hindutva, as articulated by Savarkar, has had a profound influence on Indian politics. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and other affiliated organizations have drawn inspiration from his ideas.

3. Memorials and Recognition: Several memorials and institutions have been established in his honor, including the Veer Savarkar International Airport in Port Blair.
Veer Savarkar’s life and contributions continue to be debated, reflecting the complexities of his role in India’s struggle for independence and his impact on the political and ideological landscape of the country.