Biography of Razia Sultan

Razia Sultan (c. 1205–1240) was a remarkable historical figure in medieval India. She was the daughter of Sultan Iltutmish, the third ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, and she went on to become the first and only female ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Here’s an overview of her life and reign:
Early Life - Education and Training - Challenges and Achievements - Downfall and Death of Razia Sultan
Biography of Razia Sultan

Early Life of Razia Sultan:

Razia Sultan was born around the year 1205 in Budaun, Delhi Sultanate (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India). She was the daughter of Sultan Iltutmish, a slave-turned-sultan, and his wife Shah Turkan. Iltutmish recognized Razia’s intelligence and leadership qualities from a young age.

Education and Training:

Unlike most girls of her time, Razia received a comprehensive education in various subjects, including administration, politics, literature, and military strategy. Her father, Sultan Iltutmish, was known for his progressive outlook, which allowed Razia to be groomed for rulership.

Razia Sultan Reign as Sultan:

After the death of her father in 1236, Razia Sultan ascended to the throne of Delhi Sultanate, becoming the Sultan of Delhi. She was not only the first woman to sit on the throne but also one of the very few female rulers in the history of medieval Islamic states.

Challenges and Achievements:

Razia faced numerous challenges during her reign, including opposition from nobles and religious clerics who were not accustomed to being ruled by a woman. Despite these challenges, Razia was a capable and just ruler. She implemented various reforms, aimed at promoting social justice, religious tolerance, and economic prosperity. She was known for her emphasis on meritocracy, appointing officials based on their abilities rather than their social status.

Functions of Razia Sultan:

During his reign, Razia Sultan Razia made arrangements of law in his entire state in a proper manner. He constructed buildings to build trade, built roads and wells. He created many schools, institutes, search institutions and state libraries to promote education system in his state. He coordinated with Muslim education as well as Hindu education in all institutions. He also encouraged poets, artists and musicians to enhance art and culture.


Razia Sultan’s brief but significant rule challenged the gender norms of her time and inspired future generations. She remains a symbol of female empowerment and resilience in the face of adversity. Despite the challenges she faced, Razia Sultan’s legacy endures as a trailblazer and a testament to the potential of women in leadership roles. Her story has been immortalized in literature, folklore, and various adaptations in Indian art and media.

Razia Sultan Debate on the grave:

The grave of Raji Sultan, the only female ruler, the ruler of Delhi, to rule the throne of Takht, is claimed at three different places. The historian is not a doctrine of Razia’s mazar. Delhi, Kaithal and Tonk have been claiming their claim on the mazar of Razia Sultana. But the actual mazar has not been decided yet. By the way, in the claims of Razia’s mazar, these three claims are the strongest. There are indications that Razia Sultan was written in Arabian Persian on all these places, but there is no concrete evidence. Razia Sultan and its Ethiopian slave Yakut of Tonk in Rajasthan have found some concrete proofs.
Here a huge mazar has been found near the old Kabistan, which has been engraved in ‘Sultan Hind Rajiyah’ in Persian. There is also a small mazar nearby which can be a yakut mazar. On the size of its grandeur and magnificence it has been called Sultana’s mazar. Local historians say that Baham was a month’s gap between the death of Jung and Razia. The historian could not mention the lapse of one month and he died shortly after the war. While it was not so. Seeing the defeat in the battle, Yakut went out to Rajputana towards Razia. He wanted to save Razia’s life, but eventually he was surrounded in Tonk and he died here.

Downfall and Death of Razia Sultan:

Razia Sultan’s reign faced internal revolts and external threats. In 1240, after a short but eventful reign, she was captured and killed during a battle against her half-brother, Muiz ud din Bahram, who subsequently became the Sultan.