Biography of Leon Trotsky:

Leon Trotsky (1879-1940): The Revolutionary Marxist
Leon Trotsky, born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on November 7, 1879, was a key figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and a prominent Marxist theorist and revolutionary leader. He played a crucial role in the early days of the Soviet Union and was one of the leaders of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War.
Biography of Leon Trotsky
Biography of Leon Trotsky

Early Life and Political Activism:

Trotsky was born in Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire. He became involved in revolutionary activities at an early age and was arrested for his revolutionary writings and organizing. In 1902, he adopted the pseudonym Trotsky, derived from the German word “trotzen,” meaning “to defy.”

Russian Revolution and Rise to Power:

Trotsky was a leading member of the Bolshevik Party and played a pivotal role in the October Revolution of 1917, which led to the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the establishment of Bolshevik rule. He was appointed People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs.

Russian Civil War:

During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922), Trotsky led the Red Army against the anti-Bolshevik White Army and foreign interventionists. His strategies and leadership were instrumental in the Bolshevik victory.

Post-Civil War and Opposition to Stalin:

After the Civil War, Trotsky became a close ally of Vladimir Lenin. However, he had ideological differences with Joseph Stalin, particularly regarding the future direction of the Soviet state and the concept of “permanent revolution.” Trotsky opposed Stalin’s policies, which ultimately led to his expulsion from the Communist Party and his exile from the Soviet Union in 1929.

Exile and Assassination:

Trotsky lived in various countries during his exile, including Turkey, France, and Norway. In 1937, he was granted asylum in Mexico. However, his political activities and criticisms of Stalinist policies made him a target. In 1940, Trotsky was assassinated by a Soviet agent in Mexico City.


Leon Trotsky’s contributions to Marxist theory, particularly his ideas on permanent revolution, continue to influence leftist thought. His writings on the Russian Revolution, including works like “History of the Russian Revolution,” are considered essential texts in the study of revolutionary movements. Despite his controversial legacy, Trotsky remains a significant figure in the history of the socialist and communist movements.