Biography of José Rizal:

Early Life:

José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda, commonly known as José Rizal, was born on June 19, 1861, in Calamba, Laguna, Philippines. He came from a well-educated and prosperous family. His parents were Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandro and Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda y Quintos.


José Rizal pursued his early education in Calamba and later continued his studies at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, a Jesuit school. He excelled in various subjects and went on to study at the University of Santo Tomas, where he took up a medical degree.

José Rizal’s Travel Abroad:

In 1882, Rizal traveled to Madrid to continue his medical studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. He later moved to Paris and Heidelberg. During his time in Europe, he became involved in various intellectual and political circles. He also wrote articles and essays that criticized the Spanish colonial administration in the Philippines.
Early Life and Education - Travel Abroad and Literary Works - Exile in Dapitan - Legacy and Execution of José Rizal
Biography of José Rizal

Literary Works:

Rizal was a prolific writer and poet. His literary works include novels, essays, and poems that explored themes of national identity, social justice, and the abuses of colonial rule. Notable works include:
– “Noli Me Tangere” (Touch Me Not)
– “El Filibusterismo” (The Subversive)
– “Mi Ultimo Adios” (My Last Farewell)

José Rizal’s Return to the Philippines:

In 1887, José Rizal returned to the Philippines. Despite his desire for social reforms, his novels were met with resistance from Spanish authorities. He founded the La Liga Filipina, an organization advocating for reforms and social equality. However, the group faced suppression.

Exile in Dapitan:

Rizal was exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao in 1892. Despite his exile, he continued to contribute to scientific, educational, and agricultural development in the region. He established a school and engaged in various civic activities.

Execution of José Rizal:

In 1896, Rizal was implicated in the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule. He was arrested, tried, and convicted of rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy. On December 30, 1896, at Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park), José Rizal was executed by a firing squad. His death fueled nationalist sentiments and became a symbol of the struggle for Philippine independence.


José Rizal is recognized as the national hero of the Philippines. His writings and sacrifices inspired the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonization. Rizal’s legacy continues to influence Filipino nationalism, and his works are studied as part of the country’s literature and history.
Rizal’s contributions to literature, science, education, and his advocacy for social reforms make him a revered figure in Philippine history. Rizal Day, observed on December 30, commemorates his life and sacrifice for the country.