Biography of Harshavardhana:

Harshavardhana (c. 590 – 647 CE) was a ruler of northern India from 606 to 647 CE. He was born in Sthanvishvara, present-day Thanesar, Haryana, India. Harshavardhana belonged to the Pushyabhuti dynasty and was the son of Prabhakarvardhana, who had defeated the Alchon Hun invaders. Harshavardhana’s reign marked a transition from the ancient to the medieval period, when decentralized regional empires continually struggled for hegemony.
Early Life and Reign - Religious Policy - End of Rule - Literary Contributions of Harshavardhana
Biography of Harshavardhana
Harshavardhana was a patron of Buddhism and Shaivism. He was known for his literary prowess and authored three Sanskrit plays. His empire covered much of northern and northwestern India, with the Narmada River as its southern boundary. He made Kanyakubja, present-day Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh, his imperial capital. Harshavardhana was defeated by the Emperor Pulakeshin II of the Chalukya dynasty in the Battle of Narmada when he tried to expand his empire into the southern peninsula of India.
Harshavardhana’s reign was marked by peace and prosperity, which made his court a center of cosmopolitanism, attracting scholars, artists, and religious visitors from far and wide. The Chinese traveler Xuanzang visited the imperial court of Harshavardhana and wrote a very favorable account of him, praising his justice and generosity.

Brief biography of Harsha:

Harsha, also known as Harshavardhana, was a prominent Indian emperor who ruled over North India from 606 to 647 CE. He was a member of the Vardhana dynasty and is best known for his efforts in consolidating and expanding his empire, as well as for his support of Buddhism. 
Here is a brief biography of Harsha:

Early Life of Harshavardhana:

Harsha was born in 590 CE in Thanesar (present-day Haryana, India), into the Vardhana dynasty.
His father, Prabhakar Vardhana, was the ruler of Thanesar, and Harsha ascended to the throne after his father’s death in 606 CE.


Harsha’s reign began in 606 CE, and he initially ruled over the territories of Thanesar and Kannauj.
He later extended his empire through a series of military campaigns, eventually ruling over a vast region that included parts of present-day Northern India.
Harsha was known for his benevolent rule and patronage of the arts and literature. He was a great admirer of learning and scholarship.

Religious Policy of Harshavardhana:

Harsha was initially a Shaivite but later converted to Buddhism. Despite his personal conversion, he maintained a policy of religious tolerance and supported various religious traditions in his empire.
He convened the famous Buddhist Council at Kanauj to reconcile the differences between the different sects of Buddhism.

Literary Contributions:

Harsha himself was a scholar and is believed to have written three Sanskrit plays—”Ratnavali,” “Priyadarsika,” and “Nagananda.” These plays are significant contributions to Sanskrit literature.
His court was a center of learning, attracting scholars and intellectuals from various regions.

End of Rule:

After Harsha’s death in 647 CE, his empire started to disintegrate. The lack of a strong central authority led to the fragmentation of his vast territory.
The collapse of Harsha’s empire made way for the rise of regional powers in different parts of North India.
Harshavardhana is remembered as one of the last great emperors of ancient India and is admired for his support of learning and literature. His reign is often seen as a period of relative peace and cultural flourishing in North India.