Biography of Guru Tegh Bahadur

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (1621-1675) was the ninth Guru of Sikhism, serving from 1665 until his martyrdom in 1675. He is revered as a spiritual leader, a poet, and a defender of religious freedom. Here is a detailed biography of his life:
Biography of Guru Tegh Bahadur
Biography of Guru Tegh Bahadur

Early Life of Guru Tegh Bahadur:

Guru Tegh Bahadur was born on April 1, 1621, in Amritsar, Punjab, India. He was named Tyag Mal at birth, and he was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind, the sixth Guru of Sikhism. From a young age, Tyag Mal showed signs of spirituality and wisdom, impressing those around him with his knowledge and piety.

Spiritual Journey:

Tyag Mal became the ninth Sikh Guru in 1665, following the passing of his father, Guru Hargobind. He was given the name Tegh Bahadur, which means “Mighty Warrior,” signifying his courage and bravery. Guru Tegh Bahadur traveled extensively, spreading the teachings of Sikhism and emphasizing the importance of faith, meditation, and selfless service.

Guru Tegh Bahadur’s Defense of Religious Freedom:

One of the most significant events in Guru Tegh Bahadur’s life was his defense of religious freedom. In response to the religious persecution faced by Kashmiri Pandits, a Hindu minority in the region of Kashmir, Guru Tegh Bahadur stood up against the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s forced conversions and tyranny. He was arrested along with his companions and brought to Delhi.


In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in Delhi by order of Aurangzeb. He chose to sacrifice his life rather than convert to Islam, becoming a martyr for the cause of religious freedom and the protection of the oppressed. His martyrdom took place at the site where the Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib stands today, commemorating his sacrifice.

Legacy of Guru Tegh Bahadur:

Guru Tegh Bahadur’s martyrdom is a pivotal event in Sikh history, underscoring the Sikh commitment to freedom of belief and human rights. He is remembered not only for his courage and sacrifice but also for his spiritual teachings, which emphasized the oneness of humanity, equality, and the importance of living a righteous life.

Gurdwaras and Commemoration:

Several Gurdwaras (Sikh temples) around the world are dedicated to Guru Tegh Bahadur, including the historic Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi. His martyrdom is observed annually on the day of his execution, known as Shaheedi Divas, which is a solemn occasion for Sikhs to remember his sacrifice and reflect on the values he stood for.