Biography of Daniel Defoe:

Daniel Defoe (1660 – 24 April 1731) was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, best known for his novel “Robinson Crusoe.” Defoe is considered one of the earliest proponents of the novel form in English literature. 

Here’s an overview of his life and contributions:

Early Life and Career:

Birth: Daniel Defoe was born in London, England, around 1660. The exact date of his birth is uncertain.
Education: He received a good education and later attended Charles Morton’s Academy, where he studied alongside other notable figures of his time.
Early Life and Career - Writing and Journalism - Literary Career and Political Involvement - Legacy and Death of Daniel Defoe
Biography of Daniel Defoe

Defoe’s Writing and Journalism:

Journalism: Defoe became a prolific writer and journalist, contributing to various periodicals and newspapers. He often wrote on topics related to politics, trade, and social issues.
Pamphlets: Defoe gained fame for his political pamphlets, defending the government and expressing his views on current events. He used the medium of pamphlets to convey his ideas to a wider audience.

Literary Career:

“Robinson Crusoe”: Defoe’s most famous work, “Robinson Crusoe,” was published in 1719. The novel tells the story of a mariner shipwrecked on a deserted island, and his struggle for survival. It is considered one of the earliest novels in the English language and has inspired numerous adaptations and interpretations.
Other Works: Defoe wrote several other novels, including “Moll Flanders” (1722) and “Roxana” (1724), exploring themes such as social mobility and the human condition.
Historical and Travel Works: He also authored works on history and travel, contributing to the knowledge of his time.

Political Involvement of Daniel Defoe:

Spy and Political Agent: Defoe was a political agent and spy for the British government. He undertook various secret missions, serving as a propagandist and gathering intelligence.
Prison: Defoe spent time in prison for his political activities, particularly for publishing works that were critical of the government.


Impact on Literature: Defoe’s innovative narrative techniques and realistic portrayal of characters had a significant influence on the development of the novel as a literary form.
Popularity: Despite financial challenges during his lifetime, Defoe’s works gained popularity, and he achieved recognition as a prominent literary figure.
Continued Influence: “Robinson Crusoe” remains one of the most widely read and adapted novels in world literature, inspiring countless writers, filmmakers, and artists.

Death of Daniel Defoe:

Passing: Daniel Defoe passed away on 24 April 1731, in London, England.
Daniel Defoe’s contributions to literature, journalism, and the novel form have cemented his legacy as a pioneering figure in English literature. His ability to capture the human spirit and create compelling narratives continues to captivate readers and scholars alike.