Biography of Bhartṛhari:

Bhartṛhari was a renowned Sanskrit scholar, poet, philosopher, grammarian, and a major figure in Indian literature. He lived in the 5th century CE and is associated with the classical period of Indian philosophy and literature. Bhartṛhari’s contributions span various domains, including linguistics, ethics, and metaphysics. 
Here’s an overview of his life and contributions:

Early Life:

1. Birth: Bhartṛhari was born in Ujjain, a city in present-day Madhya Pradesh, India.
2. Royalty: According to some accounts, Bhartṛhari was initially a king, the younger brother of the ruler of Ujjain. Later, he renounced his kingdom to pursue a life of asceticism and knowledge.
Early Life - Linguistics and Grammar - Poetry and Philosophy - Bhartṛhari's Śatakatraya - Legacy and Death of Bhartṛhari

Linguistics and Grammar:

1. Vākyapadīya: Bhartṛhari is best known for his work “Vākyapadīya,” a seminal text in the field of linguistics and philosophy of language. It consists of three books: “Brahmakāṇḍa,” “Vākyakāṇḍa,” and “Padyakāṇḍa.”
2. Theory of Sentence: In “Vākyapadīya,” Bhartṛhari presents a comprehensive theory of the sentence (vākya) and explores the relationship between language and reality.

Bhartṛhari’s Poetry:

1. Bhartṛhari’s Śatakatraya: Bhartṛhari is also renowned for his poetry, particularly the “Bhartṛhari Śatakatraya” (Three Centuries of Bhartṛhari). The three centuries are the “Nītiśataka” (the Century of Morals), “Śṛṅgāratilaka” (the Crown of Erotics), and “Vairāgyaśataka” (the Century of Renunciation).
2. Themes: His poems cover a wide range of themes, including love, ethics, detachment, and the transient nature of life.


1. Vedānta Influence: Bhartṛhari’s philosophical ideas are influenced by Vedānta. He explores concepts related to the nature of reality, the self (ātman), and the ultimate reality (Brahman).
2. Maya: Bhartṛhari discusses the illusory nature of the world (māyā) and the importance of transcending worldly attachments for spiritual realization.


1. Life Choices: Bhartṛhari is said to have renounced his princely life after a personal tragedy, leading to his spiritual pursuits.
2. Asceticism: He embraced the life of an ascetic, seeking knowledge and enlightenment through contemplation and meditation.


1. Influence on Indian Philosophy: Bhartṛhari’s contributions to linguistics, philosophy, and poetry have had a profound impact on Indian intellectual traditions.
2. Continued Study: Scholars and enthusiasts continue to study and interpret Bhartṛhari’s works, appreciating the depth of his philosophical insights and linguistic theories.

Death of Bhartṛhari:

The details surrounding Bhartṛhari’s death are not well-documented, and there are different accounts and legends regarding the circumstances of his departure.
Bhartṛhari’s legacy endures through his profound contributions to linguistics, philosophy, and poetry. His works remain subjects of study and admiration, reflecting the richness of Indian intellectual and literary traditions.