Biography of Bharatendu Harishchandra

Bharatendu Harishchandra, often referred to as the “Father of Modern Hindi Literature,” was a prominent Indian writer, poet, playwright, and social reformer during the late 19th century. He played a crucial role in the development of modern Hindi literature and theatre. Here is a brief biography of Bharatendu Harishchandra:
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Early Life -  Literary Contributions - Social Reforms - Legacy - Death of Bharatendu Harishchandra
Bharatendu Harishchandra

Early Life:

Bharatendu Harishchandra was born on September 9, 1850, in Banaras (now Varanasi), India. He was born into a family of scholars and poets. His father, Gopal Chandra, was a renowned scholar and poet of his time, and he had a significant influence on Bharatendu’s literary pursuits.

 Literary Contributions of Bharatendu Harishchandra:

Bharatendu Harishchandra was a prolific writer and contributed significantly to Hindi literature. He was a champion of the use of Khadi Boli, the colloquial dialect of Hindi, in literature and encouraged its use over the highly Sanskritized literary language prevalent at that time.
He founded the “Hindi Natak Samaj” in 1868, aimed at revitalizing traditional Hindi theatre and promoting social reforms through his plays. He wrote numerous plays, poems, essays, and novels that addressed social issues, cultural heritage, and contemporary politics.
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know about service of Bharatendu Harishchandra

Bharatendu Harishchandra’s Social Reforms:

Bharatendu was not only a literary figure but also a social reformer. He actively advocated for social and cultural reforms, raising awareness about issues such as women’s rights, caste discrimination, and education. He used his writings and plays to challenge social norms and promote progressive thinking.


Bharatendu Harishchandra’s contributions to Hindi literature and theatre were immense. He laid the foundation for modern Hindi literature and inspired generations of writers and playwrights. His efforts to promote Hindi language and culture earned him the title of “Bharatendu,” meaning “Moon of India.” 
Along with literature, Bharatendu’s social service also went on. He gave his yoga in setting many problems. He considered his duty to help the poor, the litterateur and friends. Bharatendu became very weak with the huge expenditure of money and due to the anxieties, his body became looser. As a result, death in 1885 only died in short life.

Death of Bharatendu Harishchandra:

Bharatendu Harishchandra’s life was cut short tragically when he passed away on January 6, 1885, at the young age of 34. Despite his relatively short life, his impact on Hindi literature and cultural reform in India was profound.
Bharatendu Harishchandra’s work continues to be celebrated in India, and he is remembered as a pioneer who transformed Hindi literature, making it more accessible to the common people and shaping the cultural and social landscape of his time.