Biography of Abul Fazl Ibn Mubarak:

Abul Fazl, full name Abul Fazl ibn Mubarak, was a renowned Persian historian, biographer, and statesman in the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. He is best known for his significant contributions to the “Akbarnama” and “Ain-i-Akbari,” historical works that provide valuable insights into the reign of Emperor Akbar. 
Here’s a brief biography of Abul Fazl:

Birth and Early Life: 

Abul Fazl was born in 1551 in Agra, India. He belonged to a family of Persian nobility, and his father, Sheikh Mubarak, was a scholar and historian.
Birth and Early Life - Education and Court of Akbar - Religious Tolerance and Assassination of Abul Fazl Ibn Mubarak
Biography of Abul Fazl Ibn Mubarak


Abul Fazl received an excellent education in both Persian and Arabic languages. His father played a crucial role in shaping his intellectual and scholarly pursuits.

Court of Akbar: 

Abul Fazl became a close associate of Akbar, the third Mughal emperor. His talents as a writer, scholar, and administrator were recognized by Akbar, who brought him into his court.

Abul Fazl Ibn Mubarak’s Historical Works:

  Akbarnama: Abul Fazl wrote the “Akbarnama,” a detailed and comprehensive history of Akbar’s reign. This work is considered one of the major historical texts of the Mughal period, providing insights into Akbar’s policies, administration, and the cultural milieu of the time.
  Ain-i-Akbari: This is another significant work by Abul Fazl, which is part of the “Akbarnama.” The “Ain-i-Akbari” is an administrative and statistical manual that provides detailed information about the organization of the Mughal state, its revenue system, and various aspects of daily life during Akbar’s rule.

Religious Tolerance: 

Abul Fazl was known for his advocacy of religious tolerance and his promotion of Akbar’s policy of Sulh-e-Kul (peace with all). He encouraged dialogue and understanding among people of different religions.


Unfortunately, Abul Fazl’s life was cut short. He was assassinated in 1602, allegedly on the orders of Akbar’s son, Prince Salim (who later became Emperor Jahangir). The exact reasons for his assassination remain a subject of historical debate.

Legacy of Abul Fazl Ibn Mubarak: 

Abul Fazl’s historical writings remain invaluable sources for understanding the Mughal Empire during Akbar’s reign. His commitment to recording accurate historical information and his emphasis on secular and inclusive governance have left a lasting impact.
Abul Fazl’s contributions to Mughal historiography continue to be studied and appreciated for their richness and depth, providing a window into the cultural, political, and administrative aspects of the Mughal era.