Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Established in 1885, the INC played a significant role in India’s struggle for independence against British colonial rule. Today, it is one of the largest and oldest political parties in India.

Formation and Early Years:

The Indian National Congress was founded by Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British civil servant, with the approval of prominent Indian leaders of the time. The first session of the INC was held in Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1885. Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee was elected as its first president.

Role in India’s Independence Movement:

The INC became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement under the leadership of prominent figures like Dadabhai Naoroji, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, and many others. It organized various movements, protests, and campaigns against British rule, leading to India gaining independence on August 15, 1947.

Post-Independence Era:

After independence, the INC became the ruling party of India. Jawaharlal Nehru, a key leader of the INC during the independence movement, became the first Prime Minister of India. The party has played a dominant role in Indian politics for most of the post-independence period, producing several Prime Ministers, including Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, and Manmohan Singh.

Ideology and Policies:

The INC traditionally identifies itself as a center-left political party, advocating for secularism, social justice, and economic inclusivity. It has supported policies related to social welfare, economic development, and education. The party has also been instrumental in shaping India’s foreign policy and economic reforms.

Challenges and Evolution:

Over the years, the INC has faced challenges from regional parties and ideological opponents. It has undergone significant changes and adapted its policies to appeal to a broad spectrum of voters. The party has been in and out of power at the central level, facing both successes and electoral setbacks.

Recent Years:

In recent years, the INC has faced challenges in national elections, especially against the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Despite its challenges, the party remains a significant force in Indian politics, especially at the state level, and continues to contribute to shaping the country’s political landscape.
The Indian National Congress, with its long and influential history, continues to be an integral part of India’s political fabric, representing the democratic ethos and diversity of the nation.