White Revolution and Operation Flood National Dairy Plan

The White Revolution in India, also known as Operation Flood, was a successful dairy development program that transformed India into one of the world’s largest producers of milk and milk products. The White Revolution was initiated by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970 under the leadership of Dr. Verghese Kurien, often referred to as the “Father of the White Revolution.”
Indian Industrial Policy 1991 | Indian Industrial Policy 1991

Indian Dairy Plan White Revolution

Objectives of the White Revolution:

1. Increase Milk Production: The primary goal was to increase milk production and make India self-sufficient in milk and milk products.
2. Empower Dairy Farmers: The program aimed to empower millions of small-scale dairy farmers by organizing them into cooperatives, providing them with technical support, and ensuring fair prices for their milk.
3. Enhance Dairy Processing: Modern dairy processing infrastructure was developed to handle the increased milk supply efficiently.
Unique Plot Identification Number | Benefits of ULPIN

Key Features and Strategies:

1. Cooperative Model: The foundation of the White Revolution was the cooperative model. Small-scale dairy farmers were organized into cooperatives, creating a unified front for milk collection, processing, and marketing.

2. Operation Flood: Operation Flood was implemented in three phases over several years. It involved setting up dairy cooperatives, providing veterinary services, improving cattle breeds through artificial insemination, and establishing milk processing plants.

3. Crossbreeding Program: The introduction of high-yielding crossbred cattle (crossbreeding native cattle with exotic breeds) significantly increased milk yields per animal.
4. Infrastructure Development: The program focused on creating modern infrastructure, including milk chilling centers, processing plants, and cold storage facilities, ensuring the preservation of milk quality.
5. Institutional Support: The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) provided technical, financial, and managerial support to dairy cooperatives and farmers. Training programs were conducted to enhance farmers’ skills and knowledge.
6. Market Access: The program ensured a market for the milk produced by the farmers, preventing exploitation by middlemen and providing a stable income source.
Pre-1991 Indian Industrial Policies | Evaluation of Indian industrial policies

Achievements and Impact:

1. Increased Milk Production: India’s milk production significantly increased, making it the largest milk producer in the world.

2. Empowerment of Farmers: Millions of dairy farmers became self-reliant and economically empowered through cooperative dairy farming.
3. Improved Rural Livelihoods: The White Revolution led to improved rural livelihoods, generating employment and income opportunities in rural areas.
4. Nutritional Impact: The increased availability of milk and dairy products had a positive impact on nutrition, especially for children, providing them with essential proteins and nutrients.
5. Global Recognition: India’s dairy development program received global recognition for its success and served as a model for other countries aiming to improve their dairy sectors.
Indian Agricultural Research Council | ICAR Objective Work
The White Revolution, through its innovative strategies and community-focused approach, transformed India’s dairy sector, uplifting millions of farmers and significantly contributing to the country’s agricultural and economic growth.
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