Gandhi-Irwin Pact (March 5, 1931)

The failure of the First Round Table Conference held in London and the generality of the Non-Cooperation Movement made it clear to the government that without Congress and Gandhi the solution to India’s political problem is not easy. Therefore, Lord Irwin started negotiating the agreement with Gandhiji through mediation. Gandhiji was released from prison on 26 January 1931. From 17 February, talks started between Irwin and Gandhiji in Delhi. On March 5, 1931, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact (Delhi Pact) / Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed.
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact, also known as the Delhi Pact, was a significant agreement signed between Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin, on March 5, 1931. This pact marked an important milestone in the Indian independence movement and the larger context of India’s struggle against British colonial rule.
Background - Responses - Key Points of Gandhi-Irwin Pact

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Background Gandhi-Irwin Pact:

During the early 1930s, India was in the midst of the Civil Disobedience Movement, a nonviolent resistance campaign led by Mahatma Gandhi against British laws, taxes, and the salt monopoly. The movement aimed to challenge oppressive British policies and demand self-rule for India.

Key Points of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact:

1. End of Civil Disobedience Movement: In the pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement. As a part of this, he agreed to suspend the Salt Satyagraha and other forms of nonviolent resistance.
2. Participation in Round Table Conference: The British government agreed to release political prisoners involved in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Furthermore, the pact allowed Indian leaders to participate in the Second Round Table Conference in London to discuss constitutional reforms and India’s future political structure.
3. No Prosecution for Participants: The British government agreed not to prosecute the participants of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact Responses

Impact and Significance Gandhi-Irwin Pact

The signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was seen as a major step towards establishing a dialogue between the Indian National Congress and the British government. It allowed Indian leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi, to present their demands and concerns directly to the British authorities during the Round Table Conference.
However, the talks at the Round Table Conference did not lead to a resolution, and the differences between the Indian leaders and the British government persisted. Despite this, the pact demonstrated the power of nonviolent resistance and paved the way for future negotiations between the Indian National Congress and the British government, eventually leading to India’s independence in 1947.