Frozen shoulder:

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by pain and stiffness in the shoulder joint. It typically develops gradually over time and can significantly limit the range of motion in the affected shoulder. The exact cause of frozen shoulder is not always clear, but certain risk factors and contributing factors are associated with its development. 
Here’s an overview of frozen shoulder:

Symptoms:

1. Pain: Persistent pain in the shoulder, often worsening at night.
2. Stiffness: Gradual onset of stiffness, leading to a progressive reduction in the range of motion.
3. Limited Range of Motion: Difficulty in performing everyday activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.
4. Progression: Frozen shoulder typically progresses through stages: pain, freezing (increased stiffness), and thawing (gradual improvement).
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Symptoms - Pain and Limited Range of Motion - Causes and Risk Factors - Treatment and Management - Overview of frozen shoulder

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Age and Gender: The condition is more common in people aged 40 to 60, and it is more prevalent in women than in men.
2. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, thyroid disorders, and Parkinson’s disease, may increase the risk.
3. Shoulder Trauma or Surgery: Injuries to the shoulder or surgical procedures involving the shoulder may contribute to the development of frozen shoulder.
4. Immobility: Prolonged immobility of the shoulder joint, such as after an arm fracture or surgery, can increase the risk.
5. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis can be associated with a higher likelihood of developing frozen shoulder.
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Treatment and Management:

1. Pain Management: Over-the-counter pain relievers or prescribed medications may be used to manage pain and inflammation.
2. Physical Therapy: Specific exercises and stretching under the guidance of a physical therapist can help improve range of motion and reduce stiffness.
3. Heat and Ice Therapy: Applying heat or ice to the affected shoulder may help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.
4. Joint Distension: In some cases, the doctor may use distension, a procedure involving injecting sterile water into the joint capsule to stretch it.
5. Corticosteroid Injections: Injections of corticosteroids into the shoulder joint may be recommended to reduce inflammation.
6. Manipulation Under Anesthesia (MUA): In some cases, MUA may be performed, where the patient is put under anesthesia, and the doctor manipulates the arm to break up adhesions.
It’s important to note that the natural course of frozen shoulder involves stages, and improvement can take several months to years. Conservative treatments are often the first line of management, but in severe cases, surgical interventions may be considered.
If you suspect you have a frozen shoulder or are experiencing persistent shoulder pain and stiffness, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management plan.
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