Biography of Humayun

Humayun, born Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Humayun, was the second Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India, succeeding his father Babur. He was born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, Afghanistan, and he ruled from 1530 to 1540 and then again from 1555 to 1556.
Biography of Humayun
Biography of Humayun

Early Life and Ascension:

Humayun was the eldest son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire. He received an excellent education and was trained in military tactics and administration. After Babur’s death in 1530, Humayun ascended to the throne at the age of 22, inheriting an empire that was still in the process of consolidation.

Reign and Challenges:

During his reign, Humayun faced significant challenges, including opposition from various regional rulers, especially Sher Shah Suri, who defeated Humayun in the Battle of Chausa in 1539 and the Battle of Kannauj in 1540. These defeats forced Humayun into exile.

Exile and Return:

Humayun spent nearly 15 years in exile, wandering through Persia and other neighboring regions. During this time, he sought refuge with the Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasp I in Iran. In 1555, with the support of the Persian army, he reclaimed Delhi and Agra, re-establishing his rule in India.

Administration and Cultural Patronage:

During his second reign, Humayun focused on administrative reforms, following the principles laid down by his father, Babur. He was also a patron of art and culture, encouraging the flourishing of literature, art, and architecture. He assembled a strong team of intellectuals and artists at his court, contributing to the cultural richness of the Mughal Empire.

Death and Legacy:

Humayun’s reign was relatively short, and he died on January 27, 1556, shortly after falling down a flight of stairs in his library. His death led to his son, Akbar, becoming the third Mughal Emperor, under whom the Mughal Empire reached its zenith.
Humayun’s legacy lies in his efforts to preserve and expand the empire, despite facing numerous challenges. His struggles and ultimate return to power set an example for his son Akbar, who went on to become one of the greatest rulers in Indian history. The Mughal Empire, under the leadership of Akbar and his successors, became a powerhouse of culture, art, and administration, and much of this success can be attributed to the foundation laid by Humayun.