Agriculture in Indus Valley Civilization:

Agriculture played a crucial role in the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world’s oldest urban civilizations that thrived around the Indus River and its tributaries (in present-day India and Pakistan) from approximately 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. 
Here are some key aspects of agriculture in the Indus Valley Civilization:

1. Fertile Land:

The Indus Valley region was blessed with fertile alluvial soil due to the periodic flooding of the Indus River. This fertile land was ideal for agriculture.
Know Ruins obtained from Indus Valley Civilization

Fertile Land and Crops Cultivated - Advanced Agricultural Techniques - Storage and Granaries - Livestock in Indus Valley

2. Crops Cultivated:

Wheat and Barley: Archaeological evidence suggests that the primary crops cultivated were wheat and barley. These grains formed the staple diet of the Indus people.
Other Crops: Besides wheat and barley, the Indus people cultivated a variety of crops, including rice, pulses, millets, sesame, and cotton. Cotton cultivation was particularly significant for the thriving textile industry of the civilization.

3. Advanced Agricultural Techniques:

The Indus people were advanced agriculturalists. They practiced irrigation to ensure a consistent water supply for their crops. Canals and drains have been discovered at various Indus sites, indicating a well-developed irrigation system.
The use of plows and other agricultural tools is also suggested by archaeological findings.

4. Storage and Granaries:

Large granaries and storage facilities have been unearthed at Indus Valley sites like Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These granaries indicate the importance of surplus food production and storage for sustenance during periods of scarcity.

5. Livestock:

Livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens, were domesticated and kept by the Indus people. These animals provided not only meat but also other resources such as milk, leather, and manure for fertilizing the fields.

6. Trade in Agricultural Products:

The surplus agricultural produce likely contributed to the development of trade within the civilization. The Indus Valley people engaged in trade with neighboring regions, exchanging agricultural goods for various resources, including metals, minerals, and luxury items.

7. Urban Centers and Rural Agriculture:

The Indus Valley Civilization had well-planned urban centers, but agriculture was predominantly rural. The fertile plains along the riverbanks allowed for the establishment of numerous agricultural villages and towns.

8. Decline:

The reasons for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization are still debated among historians and archaeologists. Environmental factors, such as changes in the course of the Indus River, climate shifts, or natural disasters, might have affected agricultural productivity and contributed to the civilization’s decline.
Agriculture was the foundation of the Indus Valley Civilization, supporting its urban centers and sustaining the livelihoods of its people. The advanced agricultural practices of the Indus people were instrumental in the civilization’s prosperity and development.