Prime Minister Agricultural Irrigation Scheme (PMKSY)

Agricultural irrigation schemes are initiatives designed to provide water to agricultural lands, ensuring a consistent and reliable water supply to support crop growth. These schemes are crucial for enhancing agricultural productivity, especially in regions where rainfall is insufficient or unreliable. 

What is Agricultural Irrigation Scheme

Several types of agricultural irrigation systems are employed globally, each catering to specific geographical and agricultural requirements. Some common agricultural irrigation schemes include:
1. Surface Irrigation: This is the most common type of irrigation where water is distributed over the soil surface. It includes techniques like furrow irrigation, basin irrigation, and border irrigation. Water flows over the soil by gravity, covering the fields evenly.
2. Drip Irrigation: Drip irrigation delivers water directly to the base of each plant through a network of pipes, tubes, and emitters. This method is highly efficient as it minimizes water wastage and allows precise control over the amount of water provided to each plant.
3. Sprinkler Irrigation: Sprinkler irrigation mimics natural rainfall by spraying water over the crops in the form of a controlled shower. Sprinkler systems consist of pipes with rotating nozzles or fixed sprinklers that distribute water evenly across the fields.
4. Subsurface Irrigation: Subsurface irrigation involves delivering water below the soil surface directly to the root zone. This method reduces water loss due to evaporation and ensures efficient water use.

5. Center Pivot Irrigation: Center pivot irrigation is a mechanized system where a rotating sprinkler system pivots around a central point, irrigating a circular area of the field. This method is commonly used for large-scale agriculture.
6. Lift Irrigation: Lift irrigation involves raising water from a water source (such as a river or well) to the agricultural fields using pumps. This method is employed in areas where water sources are at a lower elevation than the fields.
7. Rainwater Harvesting: Rainwater harvesting involves capturing and storing rainwater for later agricultural use. Various techniques, such as rooftop harvesting and pond construction, are used to collect rainwater.
8. Check Dam Construction: Check dams are small, temporary dams built across seasonal rivers or streams to impound water during the monsoon season. These dams help recharge groundwater and provide water for irrigation downstream.

9. Watershed Management: Watershed management focuses on conserving water in the entire watershed area, including forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands. It aims to optimize water use for irrigation while ensuring environmental sustainability.
Agricultural irrigation schemes are essential for ensuring food security, improving crop yields, and supporting the livelihoods of farmers. The choice of irrigation method depends on factors such as water availability, soil type, crop type, and the financial resources of the farmers or agricultural communities. Properly planned and implemented irrigation schemes contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture and rural development.